From the beginning believers in Christ possessed a Bible, the Old Testament, which they brought with them from Judaism into the Church. To this in time they added apostolic writings, which they considered equal to what they already had, to form the completed Bible. They spoke of the older writings as the Law and the Prophets or simply the Law. To the completed collection of Scriptures they gave the title the Law, the Gospels, and the Apostles, or just the Law and the Apostles.
Of course, possessing these books indicated there was much value in reading them. That is why Jehovah has commanded His people to seriously study Scripture. Obviously, learning to read and write one’s native tongue becomes the first thing necessary to pour over the pages of the Bible with profit. Then other things build on that ability as helpful tools in a study of Scripture. The attitude one possesses is of the essence. This includes that of humility which recognizes the need of the Holy Spirit’s aid in understanding the Bible. That requires a teachable spirit along with a disposition to diligently search the Scriptures for Truth. Being aware of the part that figures of speech play in language is most helpful. Along with these more formal tools which aid in a study of the Bible are such things as various translations, concordances, and commentaries. The aim of this article is to stress the importance of all of these items in Bible study.
A Commandment to Read the Bible
Reading the Bible is among the most important things a believer can do. No doubt that is why the Lord gave commandment that His people make a serious study of its pages. He does so in both the Old and New Testaments.
Reading God’s Word in the Old Testament
Though the numbers of copies available were limited, still, studying the Bible was an important activity for the servants of the Lord in Old Testament times. This was true whether the reading was in the public assembly or in private worship.
Scripture Reading in the Public Assembly:
Jehovah instructed that the His Word be read publicly in His earliest instructions on corporate worship. For example, the people of Israel were to read it when they assembled together. The Lord commanded, “You shall read this law before them in their hearing. Assemble the people—men, women and children, and the aliens living in your towns—so they can listen and learn to fear the LORD your God and follow carefully all the words of this law” (Deut. 31:11, 12).
They were careful to follow these practices during the days after their return from captivity in Babylon. Ezra devoted his life to personal study of the Word of God. Accordingly, the Bible says that he was “. . . a man learned in matters concerning the commands and decrees of the LORD for Israel” (Ezra 7:11). Such ministers read Scripture in public assemblies. With men, women, and all of their children who were old enough to understand gathered, a team of Levites read to the people. They offered explanation where needed in their reading. Nehemiah reports, “They read from the Book of the Law of God, making it clear and giving the meaning so that the people could understand what was being read” (Neh. 8:8). The congregation wept, worshiped, and said, “Amen!” to their ministry. Nehemiah records that on another occasion, “They stood where they were and read from the Book of the Law of the LORD their God for a quarter of the day, and spent another quarter in confession and in worshiping the LORD their God” (Neh. 9:3).
Scripture Reading in Private Worship:
The people of Israel not only experienced the public reading of God’s Word, but they also received instructions to make a study of it privately. Jehovah commanded Joshua to do so. He was to secure a copy of the Book of the Law for himself. With the Word always close by, the Lord declared, “Do not let this Book of the Law depart from your mouth; meditate on it day and night, so that you may be careful to do everything written in it. Then you will be prosperous and successful” (Josh. 1:8). He was to direct his personal life by its teachings as well as to lead the nation of Israel by its precepts.
Further, when the day came that Israel had its first king, he was to be a careful student of the Word of the Lord. God said, “When he takes the throne of his kingdom, he is to write for himself on a scroll a copy of this law, taken from that of the priests, who are Levites. It is to be with him, and he is to read it all the days of his life so that he may learn to revere the LORD his God and follow carefully all the words of this law and these decrees” (Deut. 17:18, 19).
Reading God’s Word in the New Testament
Certainly New Testament believers were no less devoted to a study of Scripture than those in the Old Testament. They followed the ancient custom in both the public assembly and in private worship.
Scripture Reading in the Public Assembly:
One of Paul’s letters to Timothy contains instructions on his leadership in corporate worship. He counseled on public prayer saying, “I urge, then, first of all, that requests, prayers, intercession and thanksgiving be made for everyone” (1 Tim. 2:1). In the same way he offered guidance on the public reading of selected biblical passages in worship. He wrote, “Until I come, devote yourself to the public reading of Scripture, to preaching and to teaching” (1 Tim. 4:13).
Scripture Reading in Private Worship:
The New Testament also contains a pattern for believers to follow in the reading of the Bible in private worship. Indeed, on one occasion the Lord commended His audience for searching the Scriptures. He declared, “You diligently study the Scriptures because you think that by them you possess eternal life. These are the Scriptures that testify about me” (John 5:39). Luke spoke highly of the Bereans who responded to the preaching of Paul by receiving “. . . the message with great eagerness and examined the Scriptures every day to see if what Paul said was true” (Acts 17:11). The apostle told Timothy that what he had learned from the Bible since childhood contained truth that was able to accomplish his salvation (2 Tim. 3:15). No doubt his biblical education came largely as a result of the study of Scripture on the part of his mother and grandmother (2 Tim. 1:5).
Then, every believer should establish a habit of reading Scripture daily as a part of his devotions. He need not fear that he will not readily understand everything he reads. Marshall writes, “Despite the passage of the centuries and the undoubted difficulties that this brings, the Bible can still be understood by ordinary people. While biblical scholarship is necessary, it is not the case that only scholars can understand the Bible or that the scholars must come in between the Christian and his Bible.”
Using a Set of Standard Questions: Paul Little offers a set of standard questions for use in the Bible reading portion of one’s daily devotions. It includes the following:
1. Is there an example for me to follow?
2. Is there a sin for me to avoid?
3. Is there a command for me to obey?
4. Is there a promise for me to claim?
5. Is there a message here about the nature of God?
6. Is there a difficulty for me to explain?
7. Is there a suggestion for prayer here?
Among other principles, Little suggests that a believer read for a balanced spiritual diet—not always from the Psalms, the Gospels, or Acts. He further states that “we can't evaluate our quiet time by the way we feel afterwards.” Emotions vary, but God and our relationship to Him remain constant.
Further, Little warns against a legalistic approach to daily devotions. He declares, “The stars won't fall out of heaven the day we skip our quiet time. We don't need to fear that everything will be lost, that we'll flunk our finals, that nothing will go right, etc., just because we miss one day’s quiet time.” At the same time one must make sure he doesn't use such as an excuse for carelessness here! If only occasionally one finds his work, studies too pressing during the week, he might double up in devotions on week-ends.
Tools for Bible Study
More formal tools for bible study include various translations of Scripture, commentaries, an English dictionary, Greek and Hebrew lexicons, Bible dictionaries, concordances, commentaries, Bible software, and a Bible atlas.
Copies of Scripture:
The believer’s invaluable tool in facilitating study is his library. At its core, naturally, is the Bible. He should own as many different translations of Scripture as he can afford. This should rightfully include both literal and paraphrased copies. However, his basic study Bible should be a literal translation. He will study others for comparative and illustrative purposes. The various study Bibles available today are also helpful. Most contain brief comments in footnote form on every page of the Book, obviously some with more and others with less. Further, they provide introductions to the various portions of Scripture that are more extensive than in regular Bibles. Then from time to time articles appear on selected subjects. I make frequent use of the marginal reference columns of my copies of Scripture.
By owning various versions of the Bible, one can alternate his reading in different translations at least annually. He may also find variety in his devotions by sometimes reading Scripture aloud. With so much material available today, he has the privilege of listening to others with the use of recorded readings from the Bible. Doing so makes the best possible use of time while riding in an automobile. It also readily extends the period of one’s daily devotion.
Which are the best translations? Wisdom suggests that one select a literal translation for his basic study Bible. Such a copy of Scripture seeks, as far as it is possible, to present a word for word translation of the original Hebrew of the Old Testament and the Greek of the New. For many years the Authorized or King James Version provided the most used of the English translations of the Bible. More recently the New King James attempts to modernize the somewhat archaic English of the earlier version. I am currently reading the recently published Standard English Version of the Bible. It appears to be a good literal translation. Dynamic translations focus more on the concepts of Scripture and endeavor to produce a smooth flowing reading of the Bible in that way. The New International Version has become the best known of these. Most of the better translations come from the efforts of several scholars who work as a team in the production of their version. Some individuals have worked to offer a paraphrased version of Scripture. The Living Bible provides an example.
My practice for a long time includes that of reading the Bible through once each year. Various publications often list differing schedules to facilitate that habit. A rather helpful one calls for going through an average of five chapters every day on a five days per week basis. This takes one through the Bible during the period of a year. I engage in this activity in order to keep the whole counsel of God before me. By doing so, I avoid selecting merely favorite passages of Scripture, such as the Psalms. Some years I not only read the text of the Bible but I also read the extra material appearing in a study Bible. This includes the introduction to each book, the occasional subject articles, and the footnotes on the various pages. Examples of those I have used in this way are The NIV Study Bible and The Full Life Study Bible. Throughout the year, then, I do more than just read. I add times when I study thoroughly certain portions of the Bible, digging deeply into their every sentence right down to focusing on individual words.
A careful study of Scripture itself requires a good English dictionary. For many years I have kept one within arm’s length in my office. I don’t expect to outgrow the need for its help. Rather than purchasing an inexpensive one, I think I have done well to buy one with quality scholarship. It helps not only with definitions but also with correct spelling as well as word division and hyphenation. I use Webster’s New Collegiate Dictionary. In addition to an English Dictionary, a serious student of Scripture must also have a Bible dictionary. The difference is that the first focuses on the meaning of single words while the second has articles on all of the basic subjects found in the Bible. Most helpful to me through the years has been The New Bible Dictionary edited by J. D. Douglas. Bible encyclopedias, generally in multi-volume sets, offer more extensive treatments of subjects than do Bible dictionaries. The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia is among the best known of these.
Of course, if a believer is a student of biblical languages he will need both a Greek and a Hebrew lexicon. Some more recently published study aids make it possible for any person to do limited but helpful research involving Greek and Hebrew. One such source is The New Testament Study Bible with ten volumes to make up The Complete Biblical Library. The works contain the Greek text on each left page with corresponding commentary in English on the right. A numbering system appears over each Greek word. This allows one to use the companion six volumes of the Greek-English Dictionary of The Complete Biblical Library by turning to the corresponding number of any word one wishes to study. The dictionary contains articles on the meaning and use of specific words along with a listing of every reference in the New Testament where it appears.
Ideally, one’s first step should be the reading of the paragraph he selects in every version of the Bible he has on his library shelves. It is even better, if one has acquired the necessary knowledge of the languages, to begin his reading in the original of either Hebrew or Greek. That is usually slow going for most, but it gets one as close as it is humanly possible to what the Spirit actually said as the Author of the Bible. It is my personal preference to read the originals and the translations before I allow myself to look at the commentaries. All the while I am reading I am taking notes. When I do consult the writings of the scholars, then, I find that I have already personally seen much of what they did as they wrote the commentaries.
The next most important works to assist in Bible study include a concordance. I make regular use of both a small one, such as Cruden’s, and a more exhaustive one like that of Young’s to help me dig into the Word. My basic use of Cruden’s is to help me locate specific verses of the Bible whose reference I cannot immediately recall. Then I turn to Young’s when I am engaged in word studies.
Available commentaries include those that cover the whole Bible in one volume to those of several volumes. For years I have found valuable material in the single volume New Bible Commentary. Some multi-volume commentary sets also come in an abridged single volume form. Notable among them is the work of Matthew Henry. Multi-volume commentaries can be as exhaustive at the twenty-three volume set of The Pulpit Commentary. It contains not only a rather extensive commentary on each biblical passage but also usually several homilies on each by various authors. I find that I rarely read the sermons included in the set. For that reason, one would spend his money better to purchase commentary sets with a half dozen or so volumes. It seems unwise to spend money for material that he will seldom if ever use. Indeed, in some cases, he is better to purchase only selected volumes of some commentaries. He may know the authors of each well enough to choose only those he knows to offer the most solidly biblical material on a given book of the Bible.
In today’s world, of course, the availability of Bible programs for utilizing the computer in study is of great assistance. The speed with which one can find materials and the convenience of copying and pasting portions of Scripture as well as selected quotes greatly enhances the process. Both aid in presenting things accurately either in speech or in print. Most offer commentary material along with other useful items. Understandably, the more economical ones offer less than the more expensive. The commentary offerings in the cheaper programs are also generally the older works. In the moderate price range, I have found what Zondervan Publishers now make available to be acceptable.
To complete the collection of his basic tools for Bible study, the believer should search for a good Bible atlas. Along with hard copies of these, publishers now provide computer software to aid in an effort to master a basic knowledge of the geography of the lands of biblical times. To mentally picture on a map the location of a place one is reading about in Scripture produces greater meaning in learning about what happened there. It is the next best thing to taking a trip to the Holy Land. Of course, if one has been able to visit there, ever after, for example, when one reads about the Sea of Galilee a full picture of the scene fills his mind.
As in so many areas of life, attitudes stand at the top of requisite things needed for success. In an approach to profitably read the Bible, an attitude of humility, a realization that one needs help in understanding the Scriptures, is of the essence. The intent to depend on the aid of the Holy Spirit is the place to begin. Scripture was produced by the miracle of inspiration, but its understanding comes by the miracle of illumination. Jesus had this in mind when, in a prayer He said, “I praise you, Father, Lord of heaven and earth, because you have hidden these things from the wise and learned, and revealed them to little children” (Matt. 11:35).
Of course, this requires that one possess a teachable spirit. The Ethiopian eunuch demonstrated such a disposition in his relationship to Philip the Evangelist. He was engaged in reading the Book of Isaiah when the two met. The preacher enquired, “Do you understand what you are reading?” (Acts 8:31). “How can I,” he said, “unless someone explains it to me?” (Acts 8:30, 31). A companion to a teachable spirit is a determination to diligently study the Bible. As Stott observes, “For in our reading of Scripture divine illumination is no substitute for human endeavour. Nor is humility in seeking light from God alone inconsistent with the most disciplined industry in study.”
Above all, then, one’s aim as a student of the Word of God must be to live by its teachings. Certainly, one should avoid coming to the Bible in a search to find minutia over which to argue with a fellow worker, friend, or relative. Such an approach all but guarantees that the reader will miss its intended message. Instead, his aim should be as Paul, “So I strive always to keep my conscience clear before God and man” (Acts 24:16). For me, my greatest prayer in life has come to be that I never do or say anything that will cause anyone to reproach the Name of Jesus.
Being Aware of Figures of Speech in Scripture
A literal interpretation of Scripture requires that one be aware of figures of speech. Jesus certainly employed them in His teaching. Some truth cannot be communicated adequately by using only simple, declarative statements. By means of figures one can speak and write more clearly and forcefully. To be ignorant of them or to misuse them results in confusion in speaking, writing, or reading in any language. Archer declares, “We grievously err in our interpretation when we interpret figurative language literally; we likewise err when we interpret literal language figuratively.”
The more common figures of speech include metaphor, simile, hyperbole, paradox, metonymy, synecdoche, personification, and euphemism. The lines below define and illustrate each of these.
As a figure of speech the metaphor uses the resemblance between two things and characterizes the one by the other. Jesus employed the figure when He declared, “You are the light of the world” (Matt. 5:14). He did the same in saying, “I am the vine; you are the branches” (John 15:5). In a similar manner at the Last Supper as He handed His students a piece of bread He said, “Take it; this is my body” (Mark 14:22). The Lord obviously did not mean that the bread was literally a part of His body. For that to be so would require Him either to possess two bodies or that He cut off a part of His one body and handed it to them to eat! Rather, the bread served to illustrate His body that was soon to be broken for them.
The simile is similar to the metaphor except it makes the comparison more clear in declaring that one thing is “like” or “as” another in some of its features. By using an illustration it communicates a truth in a more graphic way than a simple, declarative statement would. Of a righteous person the psalmist declared, “He is like a tree planted by streams of water, which yields its fruit in season and whose leaf does not wither” (Ps. 1:3).
A writer or speaker uses hyperbole when he employs a readily recognizable exaggeration for the sake of emphasis. In His Sermon on the Mount Jesus declared, “And if your right hand causes you to sin, cut it off and throw it away. It is better for you to lose one part of your body than for your whole body to go into hell” (Matt. 5:30). Those who listened readily understood that he was speaking of spiritual surgery rather than physical. No one in the Gospels or in Acts took Him to be speaking literally. For one thing, to cut off the hand of the thief does not rid him of a heart of thievery.
To use paradox as a figure of speech is to focus on contradiction or even absurdity as a means of getting attention and elaborating truth. Jesus did so in making clear that none of His followers can love anyone or anything more than Himself. To illustraate, once His students listened as He made the shocking statement, “If anyone comes to me and does not hate his father and mother, his wife and children, his brothers and sisters—yes, even his own life—he cannot be my disciple” (Luke 14:26). With these words He certainly does not speak against the commandment elsewhere in Scripture to honor father and mother. His obvious intent is to say that one must love Him more than his dearest family members. However, to reduce His message to a simple, declarative statement in that way does not communicate nearly so forcefully.
The metonymy uses one word to speak of another. On behalf of his brothers the Rich Man begged that the poor Lazarus be allowed to rise from the dead and warn his family not to come to the awful hell that he was in. Abraham’s response was, “They have Moses and the Prophets; let them listen to them” (Luke 16:29). His truth was transmitted more efficiently than to say, “They have the writings of Moses and the prophets.”
In the synecdoche a part of a thing stands for the whole or the whole for the part. On an occasion when the Jewish leaders questioned the authority of Jesus to act in cleansing the Temple His reply came in the form of a counter-question. He said, “I will also ask you a question. Tell me, John’s baptism—was it from heaven, or from men?” (Luke 20:3, 4). In this case Jesus used John’s baptism to speak of the whole of his ministry. His question, then, concerned the opinion of His critics as to John’s ministry and not simply his actions in baptizing people.
When one uses personification in speech or writing he gives an inanimate object the characteristics of human personality. Paul did this in discussing his law-versus-grace doctrine with the Galatians. He clothed Scripture with the attributes of God. He wrote, “The Scripture foresaw that God would justify the Gentiles by faith, and announced the gospel in advance to Abraham: ‘All nations will be blessed through you’” (Gal. 3:8). Instead of declaring, “Jehovah foresaw,” He spoke of the Scripture as “foreseeing.” This lends credence to much of what these articles have presented concerning the authority of the Bible.
At a funeral the preacher often uses euphemism in his ministry to a grieving family. With it he employs a soft word to speak of a harsh reality of life. In doing so he follows the Bible when it speaks of the dead as being asleep. Paul did so when he addressed the subject of death, the rapture, and the resurrection with the Thessalonians. He spoke of those who are “asleep” in Jesus three times before clearly referring to them as the “dead in Christ” in his short treatise on the subject (1 Thess. 4:13-16).
Long before Paul wrote of death as sleep Jesus referred to the death of Lazarus as sleep. To His associates He said, “Our friend Lazarus has fallen asleep; but I am going there to wake him up” (John 11:11). However, they made the common mistake of taking his figurative declaration as being literal. Accordingly, knowing that Lazarus had been seriously ill, they responded, “Lord, if he sleeps, he will get better” (12). In recounting the incident John explains, “Jesus had been speaking of his death, but his disciples thought he meant natural sleep. So, then he told them plainly, ‘Lazarus is dead’” (13, 14).
Some err because they do not recognize that the Bible’s references to deceased believers as being asleep contains euphemism as a figure of speech rather than being a literal statement. When Jesus and the thief on a nearby cross were both dying, He promised the criminal who had just expressed His faith in the Savior, “I tell you the truth, today you will be with me in paradise” (Luke 23:43). Paul declared that at the moment one dies and leaves his physical body he is instantly “with the Lord” (2 Cor. 5:8). Then, both Jesus and Paul made clear that not even death can break the believer’s fellowship with the Lord. When they die they do not fall into a state of unconscious sleep, but instead they continue more alive than ever in full communion with their Savior!
In the lines above I have focused on helpful tools in a study of Scripture. Obviously, learning to read and write one’s native tongue becomes the first thing necessary to pour over the pages of the Bible with profit. After that, the attitude one possesses is of the essence. This includes that of humility which recognizes the need of the Holy Spirit’s aid in understanding the Bible. That requires a teachable spirit along with a disposition to diligently search the Scriptures for Truth. That search must be for principles to live by, rather than merely seeking for information for its own sake. Being aware of the part that figures of speech play in language is most helpful. Along with these more formal tools which aid in a study of the Bible include such things as various translations, concordances, and commentaries. Coming to Scripture with the aid of these things should culminate in the eternal salvation of one’s soul. Otherwise, the one who fails to read the Bible for whatever reason does so at his own peril.
WORKS CITED IN THE SERIES
Archer, Gleason L. “The Witness of the Bible to Its Own Inerrancy.” In The Foundation of Biblical Authority. Ed. James M. Boice. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing House, 1978.
Acthemeier, Paul J. Inspiration and Authority: Nature and Function of Christian Scripture. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, Inc., 1999.
Armstrong, John H. “The Authority of Scripture.” In Sola Scriptura! The Protestant Position on the Bible. Ed. Don Kistler. Morgan PA: Soli Deo Gloria Publications, 1995.
Badger, Steve. Witnessing to our postmodern World, Springfield, MO: By the author, 2003.
Brown, William E. “Theology in a postmodern Culture: Implications of a Video-Dependent Society,” In The Challenge of Postmodernism, Ed. David S. Dockery. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 1995.
Clendenen, E. Ray. “Postholes, Postmodernism, and the Prophets: Toward a Textlinguistic Paradigm.” The Challenge of Postmodernism. David S. Dockery, ed. [Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 1995.
Cruden, Alexander. Cruden’s Unabridged Concordance. Old Tappan, NJ: Fleming H. Revell Company, 1974.
Dockery, David S. Christian Scripture: An Evangelical Perspective on Inspiration, Authority and Interpretation. Nashville, TN: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 1995.
Edwards, Brian H. Nothing But the Truth. New York: Evangelical Press, 2006.
Fretheim, Terence E. “The Bible as Word of God in a Postmodern Age.” In The Bible as Word of God in a Post modern Age [Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press, 1998.
. “Is the Biblical Portrayal of God Always Trustworthy?” in The Bible as the Word of God in a Postmodern Age [Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press, 1998.
Fretheim, Terence E. and Karlfried Froehlich. The Bible as Word of God in a Post modern Age. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press, 1998.
Froehlich, Karlfried. “The Incarnate Word of God: Experience and Language.” In The Bible as Word of God in a Post modern Age. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press, 1998.
Gerstner, John H. “The Church’s Doctrine of Biblical Inspiration.” In The Foundation of Biblical Authority. Ed. James M. Boice. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing House, 1978.
Gill, John. "Commentary on Exodus 17:14." In The New John Gill Exposition
of the Entire Bible. <http://www.searchgodsword.org/com/geb/view.cgi?book=ex&;chapter=017&verse=014>. 1999.
Godfrey, Robert. “What Do We Mean By Sola Scriptura?” In Sola Scriptura! The Protestant position on the Bible. Ed. Don Kistler. Morgan, PA: Soli Deo Gloria Publications, 1995.
Graham, Billy. Just As I Am: The Autobiography of Billy Graham. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1997.
Henry, Carl F. H. “ The Cultural Relativizing of Revelation.” In Biblical Authority and Conservative Perspectives. Ed. Douglas Moo. Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel Publications, 1997.
Hodge, Archibald A., and Benjamin B. Warfield. Inspiration. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, 1881 rpt.
______. “Inspiration.” The Presbyterian Review, April 1881, pp. 230-231.
Horton, Michael. “Forward.” In Sola Scriptura! The Protestant Position on the Bible. Ed. Don Kistler. Morgan, PA: Soli Deo Gloria Publications, 1995.
Kenyon, Sir Frederic. Our Bible and the Ancient Manuscripts. [New York: Harper and Brothers Publishers, 1895.
Lee, Edgar R. “Inerrancy and Interpretation.” In The Bible the word of God. Springfield, MO: Gospel Publishing House, 2003.
Little, Paul E. How to Give Away Your Faith. Second ed. Downers Grove, IL: Inter-Varsity Press, 1988.
McKowen, Paul M. In the American Scientific Affiliation. June, 1974, pp. 55-60.
Marshall, I. Howard. Biblical Inspiration. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1982.
Morris, Henry M. The Genesis Record. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1976.
Nunnally, Wave E. “Pentecostal Proclamation in a Liberal, Postmodern World.” In The Bible the Word of God. Ed. James K. Bridges. Springfield, MO: Gospel Publishing House, 2003.
Packer, J. I. “Encountering Present-Day Views of Scripture.” In The Foundation of Biblical Authority. Ed. James M. Boice. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing House, 1978.
Petersen, Rodney L. “To Behold and Inhabit the Blessed Country: Inspiration, Scripture, and Infallibility.” In Biblical Authority and Conservative Perspectives. Ed. Douglas Moo. Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel Publications, 1997.
Purkiser, W. T. Exploring the Old Testament. Kansas City, MO: Beacon Hill Press of Kansas City, 1970.
Sproul, R. C. “The Establishment of Scripture.” In Sola Scripura! The Protestant Position on the Bible. Ed. Don Kistler. Morgan, PA: Soli Deo Gloria Publications, 1995.
Stamps, Donald C. “The Word of God.” In The Full Life Study Bible. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing House, 1992, pp. 1062-1063.
Stott, John R. W. You Can Trust the Bible. Grand Rapids, MI: Discovery House Publishers, 1982.
Thiessen, Henry C. Introductory Lectures in Systematic Theology. Grand rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1956.
Van Til, Cornelius. The New Modernism. Philadelphia, PN: The Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing Company, 1947.
Warfield, Benjamin B. The Inspiration and Authority of the Bible. Philadelphia, PA: The Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing Company, 1948.
Woodbridge, John D. “Biblical Authority: Toward an Evaluation of the Rogers and McKim Proposal.” In Biblical Authority and Conservative Perspecitive. Ed. Douglas Moo. Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel Publications, 1997.
Wyckoff, John W. “The Inspiration and Authority of Scripture.” In The Bible the Word of God. Ed. James K. Bridges. Springfield, MO: Gospel Publishing House, 2003.
Young, Edward J. Thy Word is Truth. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1965.
Zacharias, Ravi. “An Ancient Message through Modern Means, to a Postmodern Mind.” In The Telling Truth: Evamgelizing Postmoderns. Ed. D. A. Carson. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing House, 2000.
- Howard Marshall, Biblical Inspiration (Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1982), p. 113.
- Paul E. Little, How to Give Away Your Faith, second ed. (Downers Grove, IL: Inter-Varsity Press, 1988), 183-185).
- Ibid., 186.
- Ibid., 189.
- Alexander Cruden, Cruden’s Unabridged Concordance (Old Tappan, NJ: Fleming H. Revell Company, 1974]).
- Robert Young, Analytical Concordance to the Bible (Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, n. d.).
- John Stott, Understanding the Bible, (Glendale, CA: Regal Books Division, G/L Publications, 1972), 211.
- Gleason L. Archer, “The Witness of the Bible to Its Own Inerrancy,” in The Foundation of Biblical Authority, ed. James M. Boice (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing House, 1978], 89, 95.